Emily Vogtmann

Cervical Cancer Knowledge and Acceptance of the HPV Vaccine in Mexican Women in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico

ABSTRACT:It has now been made clear that the Human Papilloma Virus is a necessary cause for cervical cancer (Walboomers et al, 1999). In Morelos, a state in Mexico, 16.3% of women under the age of 25 and 16.8% of women over 65 had a cancer associated type of HPV (Lazcano-Ponce et al, 2001). The prevalence of HPV in Morelos helps to explain why Mexico has one of the highest rates of invasive cervical cancer globally. In 2000, it was estimated that the cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Mexico was 40.5 and 17.1 per 100,000 women, respectively (Flores et al, 2008). Mexico has a national cervical cancer screening program which was implemented in 1974, but only 57.8% of women between the ages of 25 to 65 are screened (Wallace et al, 2007). With the introduction of the HPV vaccine, the lower cervical cancer screening rates may not affect the incidence of cervical cancer for vaccinated women pending long term studies of the vaccines effectiveness. As the vaccine has yet to be implemented in Mexico, actual acceptance and utilization of the vaccine has not been thoroughly evaluated. In one pilot study, researchers found that 86% of women interviewed in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico had never heard of the vaccine but 83% were still receptive to being vaccinated. Still, only 63% of the women supported the vaccination of their 10-14 year old daughters (Moraros et al, 2006). For these reasons, a questionnaire will be developed in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico with Dr. María del Carmen Castro and colleagues from the Colegio de Sonora in Hermosillo, Mexico and then further research about HPV and cervical cancer will be performed with the ongoing study at the National Institute of Public Health in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico with Dr. Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce and collegues. The aim of the work in Hermosillo is to create a quantitative instrument to measure the knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV and the barriers to acceptance and utilization of the HPV vaccine in Mexico. In Cuernavaca, the aim is to utilize existing data from the ongoing HPV and cervical cancer cohort study to look at the effectiveness of HPV testing in prevention of cervical cancer. The questionnaire from Hermosillo can then be published for further research in the future and the data from Cuernavaca will be analyzed at the University of Michigan to look for meaningful results.

1. Flores, Y. N., Bishai, D M., Shah, K. V., Lazcano-Ponce, E., Lorincz, A., Hernandez, M., et al. (2008). Risk factors for cervical cancer among HPV positive women in mexico. Salud Publica De Mexico, 50(1), 49-58.
2. Lazcano-Ponce, E., Herrero, R., Munoz, N., Cruz, A., Shah, K. V., Alonso, P., et al. (2001). Epidemiology of HPV infection among mexican women with normal cervical cytology. International Journal of Cance., 91(3), 412-420.
3. Moraros, J., Bird, Y., Barney, D. D., King, S. C., Banegas, M., & Suarez-Toriello, E. (2006). A pilot study: HPV infection knowledge & HPV vaccine acceptance among women residing in Ciudad Juárez, México. Californian Journal of Health Promotion, 4(3), 177.
4. Walboomers, J. M., Jacobs, M. V., Manos, M. M., Bosch, F. X., Kummer, J. A., Shah, K. V., et al. (1999). Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. The Journal of Pathology, 189(1), 12-19.
5. Wallace, D., Hunter, J., Papenfuss, M., De Zapien, J. G., Denman, C., & Giuliano, A. R. (2007). Pap smear screening among women >/=40 years residing at the united states-mexico border. Health Care for Women International, 28(9), 799-816.

HPV knowledge in Mexico college students: implications for intervention programmes