An Exploratory Study of Male Breast Cancer Frequency & Etiology in Three African Countries
ABSTRACT: Although male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease, important geographic differences have been identified that merit investigation. For instance, while in the U.S. and Europe MBC accounts for less than 1% of all breast cancers, incidence in Africa is estimated to be both higher and more variable. In Egypt, the rate of MBC was formerly 12 times greater than the U.S. (Ravandi-Kashani & Hayes, 1998), but incidence has since declined to comparable levels. Conversely, reports by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC) have shown increasing incidence in Uganda (Curado et al., 2008), and the incidence is currently estimated at 4.8%. Morocco shows a similarly high frequency of MBC, currently estimated at 3.0%. In addition, data from the SEER registries in the U.S. have shown that African Americans present with more advanced disease and have lower five-year survival rates than whites, and that their age-adjusted incidence rates are the highest of other ethnic groups (O'Malley et al., 2002). The aims of the present study are to verify the relative frequency of MBC in Egypt, Uganda, and Morocco, to explore risk factors for the disease such as family history of cancer, personal medical history, residence, and occupation, and to identify histopathological characteristics of MBC cases. For this project, demographic and clinical information will be abstracted from medical records and verified by patient interviews. Laboratory analysis of archived tumor tissues will be performed to establish a histopathological profile of MBC cases.
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3. Ravandi-Kashani F, Hayes TG. Male breast cancer: A review of the literature. European Journal of Cancer. 1998; 34(9): 1341-7.
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